Rio De Janeiro Agreement
The UN Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD) is an international agreement that combines the sustainability of land management and soil degradation issues with the environment. The convention focuses, among other things, on the restoration of degraded ecosystems in arid areas.  UNCCD, made up of 197 parties, is working to “create a future that avoids, minimizes and reverses land degradation and mitigates the effects of drought in affected areas at all levels.”  An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the climate convention, which culminated in the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. Another agreement was “not to conduct activities on aboriginal lands that cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate.” Twenty years later, partners from around the world are back in Rio de Janeiro to take stock of how these agreements have enabled the world to meet the challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss and the fight against desertification and soil degradation. To ensure compliance with the Rio Agreements (particularly the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21), Earth Summit delegates established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). In 2013, the CSD was replaced by the High-Level Policy Forum on Sustainable Development, which meets annually as part of ECOSOC meetings and every four years as part of the General Assembly. In addition, important legally binding agreements (the Rio Convention) have been put in place for the signing: critics point out that many of the agreements reached in Rio have not been implemented on such fundamental issues as the fight against poverty and environmental clean-up. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 13 June 2012 – At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio-20), the secretariats of the Conventions on Biological Diversity, Climate Change and Desertification and the Global Environment Fund join forces in the Rio Convention Pavilion to promote the implementation of these three multilateral environmental agreements on sustainable development. The Earth Summit has been hampered by disputes between the rich industrialized countries of the North (Western Europe and North America) and the poorest developing countries (Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and the regions of Asia). In general, the countries of the South have been reluctant to impede their economic growth with the environmental constraints imposed by the North, unless they have received increased financial support from the North, saying that they will contribute to environmentally friendly growth.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference and the Earth Summit (ECO92 in Portuguese), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. With 197 parties ratified, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change commits to “stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within sufficient time to naturally adapt ecosystems to climate change, ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable sustainable economic development.  Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015 and the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, the UNFCCC secretariat is working to maintain the convention`s objectives as the main UN body, whose role is to address the threat of climate change.  United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNFCAC), Byname Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro Conference in Brazil (3-14 June 1992) to reconcile global economic development and environmental protection.